Review on the development and achievements of Chin

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Review of the development and achievements of China's pile machinery industry in the past 60 years

after 60 years of development, China's pile machinery industry has formed a certain scale, which can not only basically meet the growing needs of domestic infrastructure construction, but also have gone to the international market. In the 60 years of development since the founding of the people's Republic of China, China's piling machinery industry has experienced a development process from nothing to something, from small to large, and has made indelible contributions to the construction of new China. This paper aims to sort out the development of China's pile machinery industry in the past 60 years, and feel the progress of the pile machinery industry with readers. I would like to thank the piling machinery branch of China Construction Machinery Industry Association for its strong support

the important forms of modern engineering foundation are various pile foundations, pile enclosures, etc. the mechanical equipment used for pile driving is called pile machinery. There are many kinds of piles, which can be divided into foundation supporting piles, protective curtain piles and anchor piles according to their uses; According to the material, it can be divided into steel piles, reinforced concrete piles, wood piles, sand piles and lime soil piles; According to the different manufacturing processes of piles, they can be divided into hot-rolled steel piles, concrete precast piles, cast-in-place piles and sand piles; According to the different section shapes of piles, there are square piles, round piles, pipe piles, steel sheet piles, I-shaped steel piles, etc. Since the piling machinery is only used for foundation construction, most of the piling machinery is a single piece of small batch, so the scale of the piling machinery industry will not be very large. In terms of project cost and construction period, foundation works account for 1/3 of all projects. Therefore, the development and continuous progress of piling machinery plays an important role in promoting the construction mechanization of our country

1 development history of piling machinery

before liberation, there was almost no piling machinery manufacturing industry in China. In the early 1950s, steam pile drivers and heavy drop hammers, which were imported from abroad in the old China, were all used in foundation construction in China. During the first Five-Year Plan period, due to the needs of national key construction projects, China began to imitate foreign 3?? 10T single acting and double acting steam pile drivers and the B Ⅱ series vibratory pile hammers of the former Soviet Union began to have a pile manufacturing industry dominated by imitation. The manufacturers were all repair plants of the construction department, and there was no professional pile machinery factory at that time, so the 1950s was the embryonic period of China's pile machinery industry

In the early 1960s, the Ministry of machinery and engineering set up the fifth Bureau, engineering machinery bureau, which changed Shanghai Electrical machinery factory into Shanghai Engineering Machinery Factory, designated the production of pile machinery, and became the first professional manufacturer of pile machinery in China. And the second Research Office of the Construction Machinery Research Institute of the Ministry of machinery of the people's Republic of China was designated as the Research Office of pile machinery, which began the growth period of self-developed pile machinery in China

The 1970s was the development period of China's piling machinery industry. During this period, a piling machinery industry group was established, with more than 10 manufacturing enterprises in the piling machinery industry, capable of producing 4 categories and more than 30 varieties, with an annual output of more than 400 sets

The 1980s was a period when China's pile machinery industry grew. In 1984, the piling machinery branch of China Construction Mechanization Association was established, with more than 20 manufacturing enterprises in the piling machinery industry. Institutions of higher learning such as Shanghai Tongji University, Harbin Architecture University, Nanjing Institute of construction and engineering, Northeastern University, etc. have also begun to engage in the research of new products, new technologies and new principles of piling machinery, and can produce piling machinery products in 10 categories, more than 50 varieties, and more than 200 specifications and models

The 1990s is a period of rapid development of China's pile machinery industry. The number of industrial manufacturers has grown to more than 30, and has formed a scientific research and design force at three levels: subordinate research institutes, enterprise research institutes and institutional research institutes (offices), which can produce more than 400 specifications and models of pile machinery products, with a sales revenue of 650million yuan

after entering the 21st century, with the rapid development of various infrastructure construction and housing construction in China, the pile machinery manufacturing industry and its market have achieved unprecedented high-speed development, forming the scale of dozens of professional production enterprises and hundreds of product models

2 technical progress of pile machinery

the manufacturing level of pile machinery in China has experienced a development process from low to high. Over the past few decades, the technical progress of pile machinery is mainly reflected in the following aspects:

(1) manufacturing enterprises are closely combined with construction methods to develop new products and realize product serialization. At present, there are 31 models and specifications of diesel pile hammers in three series: barrel water cooling, barrel air cooling and guide rod type; Vibratory pile hammers include DZ series, KM and VM series introduced and produced, and hydraulic adjustable eccentric moment EP series, with a total of 47 models and specifications; Hydraulic pile hammers have a series of 3 models and specifications; There is a series of pile drivers with 11 specifications and models; Long auger drilling machine has a series of 7 models and specifications; Submersible drilling machines have a series of 4 models and specifications; Rotary drilling machine has a series of 15 models and specifications; There is a series of 8 models and specifications of Vibro puncher; Track pile driving frame and walking pile driving frame also basically form a series, and each pile driving frame also has 3 ~ 5 models and specifications

(2) piling machinery products generally adopt advanced technologies such as hydraulic transmission and mechanical vibration, and advanced design means such as computer aided design (CAD). The product technology level has reached a new level, reaching the technical level of foreign countries in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Among the piling machinery products, the crawler chassis three fulcrum pile driving frame, hydraulic pile hammer, walking pile frame, pile driver, some types of rotary table drill, eccentric moment adjusting mechanism of vibratory pile hammer, pile clamping mechanism, power head of rotary bucket drill, etc. all adopt full hydraulic transmission. In order to adapt to the construction of different geological conditions, Beijing Construction Mechanization Research Institute of the Ministry of construction has developed EP series hydraulic adjustable eccentric moment vibrating hammers. The exciting force can be adjusted from 0 to hundreds of tons, and the amplitude can be adjusted from 0 to 20mm. The machine has been widely used in various foundation construction. In 1996, in order to build offshore oil platforms, Shengli Oilfield jointly developed dz400s and dz600s Vibratory Hammers with Changsha Construction Machinery Research Institute, using vibration resistant motors and variable frequency speed regulation technology, with a power of 600kW, which is a domestic super large electric vibratory hammer. Due to the widespread use of advanced technologies such as hydraulic transmission, mechanical vibration, frequency conversion and amplitude variation, the product technology level has basically reached the level of foreign countries in the early 1990s

(3) a number of pile machinery with China's own characteristics have been developed with new principles and new structures. There are many soft soil areas in China. In order to carry out pile foundation construction in soft soil areas and reduce construction hazards, in the early 1970s, according to the urgent needs of Beijing subway project, China successfully developed a hydraulic anchor pile balancing reaction dy320 pile driver for I-steel piles, which can press two piles at the same time, and the pressure of a single pile is up to 160t. Later, the hydraulic weight balanced single pile press for precast concrete piles was successively developed, with good performance. The pile driver has the advantages of no air pollution, no noise, no vibration and so on. At present, it has been mass produced

the hydraulic walking pile driving frame is also a pile driving machine with China's own characteristics. The machine adopts the new structural principle of hydraulic transmission walking, with low grounding ratio and good passing performance. It can walk back and forth, move left and right, and also rotate. It is a pile driving frame with compact structure, low cost, perfect performance, convenient and labor-saving operation, and reliable technical applicability. At present, it has also been mass produced and widely used in pile foundation construction

(4) by introducing, digesting and absorbing foreign advanced technology, the technical level of pile machinery products in China has been continuously improved. In 1983, 1995 and 1998, Shanghai construction machinery factory introduced the design and manufacturing technology of air-cooled cylinder diesel pile hammer series of German deimag company, double acting hydraulic pile hammer series of Japanese vehicle manufacturing and three fulcrum hydraulic pile driving frame of crawler chassis by license. In 1984, Fushun Excavator Factory introduced Hitachi crawler chassis three pivot hydraulic pile driver from Japan in the form of license. In 1986, Lanzhou General construction machinery factory introduced the Kobe vibration pile sinking and pulling hammer series of Japan jiandiao in the form of a license. In 1987, Heilongjiang Zhaozhou hydraulic parts factory introduced Japanese keacho pile cutting machine in the form of technology and trade. In 1988, Beijing urban construction machinery factory introduced the attached large-diameter rotary drilling rig of Italian geotechnical company. In 1994, Zhengzhou reconnaissance machinery factory introduced British BSP attached large diameter rotary bucket (short screw) drilling rig in the form of license. In 1995 and 1998, Shanghai construction machinery factory introduced the double acting hydraulic pile hammer made by Japanese vehicles and the three fulcrum hydraulic pile driver with crawler chassis in the form of license. In 1998, Harbin Sihai construction machinery manufacturing company introduced Japanese vehicles to manufacture crawler cranes in the form of technology and trade. After digestion and absorption of these nine imported products, most of the projects have been put into mass production, and the localization rate generally reaches more than 90%

through the introduction of foreign products and technological transformation, the continuous improvement of China's pile machinery products and the continuous improvement of technical level have been promoted. The Beijing Construction Mechanization Research Institute and the Japanese vehicle manufacturing company have carried out the technical cooperation of computer aided design (CAD) development of various products of piling machinery. This technical cooperation mode has promoted the comprehensive and in-depth understanding of Japanese technical products by Chinese technicians, and significantly improved the computer aided design, development and research ability of piling machinery in China

(5) a number of piling machinery products and new technological achievements have won scientific and technological progress awards at all levels. With the joint efforts of the whole industry, hundreds of new technologies and products of piling machinery have been successfully developed in the past 50 years, which has played a great role in completing the foundation construction of national key projects. In the 1980s and 1990s, a number of technologically advanced technical products that have achieved significant economic and social benefits in engineering construction won the ministerial, provincial and municipal scientific and technological progress awards, patent awards and other awards. See Table 1 for details

serial number award winning project development unit award level approval year 1 QJ rotary drilling rig disc Zhengzhou survey Machinery Factory Department first prize 1985 dz40 vibratory piling Zhejiang Ruian Construction Machinery Factory Department high quality product award 1990 2 dju72a-h crawler chassis full hydraulic three fulcrum pile driver (frame) Beijing Construction Mechanization Research Institute (formerly Beijing construction machinery comprehensive Research Institute of the Ministry of construction), Harbin first machine manufacturing plant The first prize of Shanghai Construction Machinery Factory Department 1994 3 long auger parameter research and other second prizes of Nanjing Institute of construction and engineering 1996 4 JZB120 vibration sinking and pulling pile frame Changsha Construction Machinery Research Institute and Lanzhou General Construction Machinery Factory Department 1998

Table 1. The piling machinery products won the ministerial scientific and Technological Progress Award project in the 1980s and 1990s

3 the current situation of the piling machinery industry

after entering the 20th century, under the influence of the national situation, Some large enterprises in China's construction machinery industry, such as Beijing Sany Heavy machinery, Zoomlion, Zhengzhou Yutong, Shanhe intelligent, CSR era, have entered the pile machinery industry, and the pile machinery industry has entered a period of rapid development. In 2004, there were nearly 50 manufacturers of piling machinery, with a sales volume of 3861 sets, a sales revenue of 870 million yuan, the development of 13 varieties of new products, and the formulation of 39 national and industrial standards. Among them, rotary drilling machine develops the fastest

according to the incomplete statistics of 27 major production enterprises of the piling machinery branch by China Construction Machinery Industry Association, 3838 piling machinery were produced and 3525 were sold in 2007, with a total industrial output value of 3528295000 yuan and a product sales revenue of 323.4858 million yuan. Compared with 2006, the sales revenue increased significantly. Main products of piling machinery in 2007

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